Materials that represent advances over the traditional materials that have been used for hundreds or even thousands of years. From this perspective, advanced materials refer to all new materials and modifications to existing materials to obtain superior performance in one or more characteristics that are critical for the application under consideration. They can also exhibit completely novel properties. Advanced materials typically have properties that are superior to and outperform conventional materials in their applications. The development of advanced materials is associated with the generation of new knowledge and intellectual property (IP). The development of advanced materials can even lead to the design of completely new products. Advanced materials may also be remarkably adaptable.The advanced materials industry encompasses a full life cycle from materials extraction, primary production, process development and materials characterization to product fabrication, testing, use and end-of-life waste management and recycling. Supporting activities would include research, design and development, together with skills and standards development.
The earliest systematic discussion of nanotechnology is considered to be a speech given by Richard Feynman (American physicist, 1918-1988) in 1959. In this speech Feynman discussed the importance "of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale" and how they could "tell us much of great interest about the strange phenomena that occur in complex situations."The term 'nanotechnology' was used first by the Japanese scientists Norio Taniguchi (1912-1999) in a 1974 paper on production technology that creates objects and features on the order of a Nanometer.The implications of nanotechnology are wide-ranging and could include medicine, military applications, computing and astronomy. There is growing recognition of the importance of educating future scientists and engineers about this emerging field of NANOTECHNOLOGY, as well as address safety and health aspects of Nanomaterials.