Diagnostic Ultrasound Physics and Equipment

The application of ultrasound to medical diagnosis has seen continuous development and growth over several decades. Early, primitive display modes, such as A-mode and static B-mode, borrowed from metallurgical testing and radar technologies of the time, have given way to high-performance, real-time imaging. Moving ultrasound images of babies in the womb are now familiar to most members of the public through personal experience of antenatal scanning or via television. Modern ultrasound systems do much more than produce images of unborn babies, however. Modern ultrasound systems can make detailed measurements of blood movements in blood vessels and tissues, visualize moving structures in 3D, and make measurements related to the stiff ness of tissues.

Basic principles of Ultrasound image Formation

Echo ranging

Image formation

B-mode formats


  • Track 1-1 Signal amplitude processing
  • Track 2-2 Transmit power control
  • Track 3-3 Time–gain compensation
  • Track 4-4 Harmonic imaging

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